NHP

Normal Hemodynamic Parameters

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Normal Hemodynamic Parameters - Adult

Parameter Equation Normal Range  
Arterial Blood Pressure (BP) Systolic (SBP) 90 - 140 mmHg  
  Diastolic (DBP) 60 - 90 mmHg  
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) SBP + (2 x DBP)/3 70 - 105 mmHg  
Systolic Pressure Variation (SPV) (SPmax-SPmin) <5 mmHg unlikely to be preload responsive
>5mmHg likely to be preload responsive
Read more about fluid responsiveness
Pulse Pressure Variation (PPV) (PPmax-PPmin)/[(PPmax + PPmin)/2] x100 <10% unlikely to be preload responsive
>13-15% likely to be preload responsive
Read more about use of PPV in abdominal surgery
Stroke Volume Variation (SVV) (SVmax-SVmin)/[(SVmax + SVmin)/2] x100 <10% unlikely to be preload responsive
>13-15% likely to be preload responsive
Read more about SVV in bariatric surgery
  = averaged over 10 sec. of BP data updated every 4 beats  
Right Atrial Pressure (RAP)   2 - 6 mmHg  
Right Ventricular Pressure (RVP) Systolic (RVSP) 15 - 25 mmHg  
  Diastolic (RVDP) 0 - 8 mmHg  
Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP) Systolic (PASP) 15 - 25 mmHg  
  Diastolic (PADP) 8 - 15 mmHg  
Mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure (MPAP) [PASP + (2 x PADP)]/3 10 - 20 mmHg  
Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure (PAWP)   6 - 12 mmHg  
Left Atrial Pressure (LAP)   6 - 12 mmHg  
Cardiac Output (CO) HR x SV/1000 4.0 - 8.0 l/min Read more about cardiac output
Cardiac Index (CI) CO/BSA 2.5 - 4.0 l/min/m2  
Stroke Volume (SV) CO/HR x 1000 60 - 100 ml/beat  
Stroke Volume Index (SVI) CI/HR x 1000 33 - 47 ml/m2/beat  
Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR) 80 x (MAP - RAP)/CO 800 - 1200 dynes · sec/cm5  
Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI) 80 x (MAP - RAP)/CI 1970 - 2390 dynes · sec/cm5/m2  
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance (PVR) 80 x (MPAP - PAWP)/CO <250 dynes · sec/cm5  
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Index (PVRI) 80 x (MPAP - PAWP)/CI 255 - 285 dynes · sec/cm5/m2  

Hemodynamic Parameters - Adult

Parameter Equation Normal Range  
Left Ventricular Stroke Work (LVSW) SV x (MAP - PAWP) x 0.0136 58 - 104 gm-m/beat  
Left Ventricular Stroke Work Index (LVSWI) SVI x (MAP - PAWP) x 0.0136 50 - 62 gm-m/m2/beat  
Right Ventricular Stroke Work (RVSW) SV x (MPAP - RAP) x 0.0136 8 - 16 gm-m/beat  
Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index (RVSWI) SVI x (MPAP - RAP) x 0.0136 5 - 10 gm-m/m2/beat  
Coronary Artery Perfusion Pressure (CPP) Diastolic BP - PAWP 60 - 80 mmHg  
Right Ventricular End-Diastolic Volume (RVEDV) SV/EF 100 - 160 ml  
Right Ventricular End-Systolic Volume (RVESV) EDV - SV 50 - 100 ml  
Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction (RVEF) SV/EDV 40 - 60%  

Oxygenation Parameters - Adult

Parameter Equation Normal Range  
Partial Pressure of Arterial Oxygen (PaO2)   80 - 100 mmHg  
Partial Pressure of Arterial CO2 (PaCO2)   35 - 45 mmHg  
Bicarbonate (HCO3)   22 - 28 mEg/1  
pH   7.38 - 7.42  
Arterial Oxygen Saturation (SaO2)   95 - 100%  
Mixed Venous Saturation (SvO2)   60 - 80%  
Arterial Oxygen Content (CaO2) (0.0138 x Hgb x SaO2) + (0.0031 x PaO2) 17 - 20 ml/dl  
Venous Oxygen Content (CvO2) (0.0138 x Hgb x SvO2) + (0.0031 x PvO2) 12 - 15 ml/dl  
A-V Oxygen Content Difference
(C(a-v)O2)
CaO2 - CvO2 4 - 6 ml/dl  
Oxygen Delivery (DO2) CaO2 x CO x 10 950-1150 ml/min Read about the role of DO2 in post operative Goal Directed Therapy (GDT)
Oxygen Delivery Index (DO2I) CaO2 x CI x 10 500 - 600 ml/min/m2  
Oxygen Consumption (VO2) (C(a - v)O2) x CO x 10 200 -250 ml/min  
Oxygen Consumption Index (VO2I) (C(a - v)O2 x CI x 10 120 - 160 ml/min/m2  
Oxygen Extraction Ratio (O2ER) [(CaO2-CvO2)/CaO2] x 100 22 - 30%  
Oxygen Extraction Index (O2EI) [SaO2 - SvO2)/SaO2 x 100 20 - 25%  

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