Normal Hemodynamic Parameters

What are normal hemodynamic parameters?  Find out the normal ranges for hemodynamic parameters and their equations below and Download Normal Hemodynamic Parameters (PDF)

Parameter Equation Normal Range
Arterial Blood Pressure (BP) Systolic (SBP) 90 – 140 mmHg
Diastolic (DBP) 60 – 90 mmHg
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) (SBP + 2 x DBP)/3 70 – 105 mmHg
Systolic Pressure Variation (SPV) (SPmax-SPmin) <5 mmHg unlikely to be preload responsive
>5mmHg likely to be preload responsive
Read more about fluid responsiveness
Pulse Pressure Variation (PPV) (PPmax-PPmin)/[(PPmax + PPmin)/2] x100 <10% unlikely to be preload responsive
>13-15% likely to be preload responsive
Read more about use of PPV in abdominal surgery
Stroke Volume Variation (SVV) (SVmax-SVmin)/[(SVmax + SVmin)/2] x100 <10% unlikely to be preload responsive
>13-15% likely to be preload responsive
Read more about SVV in bariatric surgery
= averaged over 10 sec. of BP data updated every 4 beats
Right Atrial Pressure (RAP) 2 – 6 mmHg
Right Ventricular Pressure (RVP) Systolic (RVSP) 15 – 25 mmHg
Diastolic (RVDP) 0 – 8 mmHg
Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP) Systolic (PASP) 15 – 25 mmHg
Diastolic (PADP) 8 – 15 mmHg
Mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure (MPAP) [PASP + (2 x PADP)]/3 10 – 20 mmHg
Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure (PAWP) 6 – 12 mmHg
Left Atrial Pressure (LAP) 6 – 12 mmHg
Cardiac Output (CO) HR x SV/1000 4.0 – 8.0 l/min Read more about cardiac output
Cardiac Index (CI) CO/BSA 2.5 – 4.0 l/min/m2
Stroke Volume (SV) CO/HR x 1000 60 – 100 ml/beat
Stroke Volume Index (SVI) CI/HR x 1000 33 – 47 ml/m2/beat
Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR) 80 x (MAP – RAP)/CO 800 – 1200 dynes · sec/cm5
Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI) 80 x (MAP – RAP)/CI 1970 – 2390 dynes · sec/cm5/m2
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance (PVR) 80 x (MPAP – PAWP)/CO <250 dynes · sec/cm5
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Index (PVRI) 80 x (MPAP – PAWP)/CI 255 – 285 dynes · sec/cm5/m2

Hemodynamic Parameters – Adult

Parameter Equation Normal Range
Left Ventricular Stroke Work (LVSW) SV x (MAP – PAWP) x 0.0136 58 – 104 gm-m/beat
Left Ventricular Stroke Work Index (LVSWI) SVI x (MAP – PAWP) x 0.0136 50 – 62 gm-m/m2/beat
Right Ventricular Stroke Work (RVSW) SV x (MPAP – RAP) x 0.0136 8 – 16 gm-m/beat
Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index (RVSWI) SVI x (MPAP – RAP) x 0.0136 5 – 10 gm-m/m2/beat
Coronary Artery Perfusion Pressure (CPP) Diastolic BP – PAWP 60 – 80 mmHg
Right Ventricular End-Diastolic Volume (RVEDV) SV/EF 100 – 160 ml
Right Ventricular End-Systolic Volume (RVESV) EDV – SV 50 – 100 ml
Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction (RVEF) SV/EDV 40 – 60%

Oxygenation Parameters – Adult

Parameter Equation Normal Range
Partial Pressure of Arterial Oxygen (PaO2) 80 – 100 mmHg
Partial Pressure of Arterial CO2(PaCO2) 35 – 45 mmHg
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 22 – 28 mEg/1
pH 7.38 – 7.42
Arterial Oxygen Saturation (SaO2) 95 – 100%
Mixed Venous Saturation (SvO2) 60 – 80%
Arterial Oxygen Content (CaO2) (0.0138 x Hgb x SaO2) + (0.0031 x PaO2) 17 – 20 ml/dl
Venous Oxygen Content (CvO2) (0.0138 x Hgb x SvO2) + (0.0031 x PvO2) 12 – 15 ml/dl
A-V Oxygen Content Difference
(C(a-v)O2)
CaO2 – CvO2 4 – 6 ml/dl
Oxygen Delivery (DO2) CaO2 x CO x 10 950-1150 ml/min Read about the role of DO2 in post operative Goal Directed Therapy (GDT)
Oxygen Delivery Index (DO2I) CaO2 x CI x 10 500 – 600 ml/min/m2
Oxygen Consumption (VO2) (C(a – v)O2) x CO x 10 200 -250 ml/min
Oxygen Consumption Index (VO2I) (C(a – v)O2 x CI x 10 120 – 160 ml/min/m2
Oxygen Extraction Ratio (O2ER) [(CaO2-CvO2)/CaO2] x 100 22 – 30%
Oxygen Extraction Index (O2EI) [SaO2 – SvO2)/SaO2 x 100 20 – 25%